Including US SAILING Prescriptions
Extract for Race Category 1 Multihulls
© ORC Ltd. 2002, all amendments from 2003 © International Sailing Federation, (IOM) Ltd.
US Version 1B - 2010
Because this is an extract not all paragraph numbers will be present
Official interpretations shall take precedence over these Special Regulations and will be indexed, numbered, dated and displayed on the ISAF web site
Language & Abbreviations Used
      Mo - Monohull
      Mu - Multihull
      " ** " means the item applies to all types of yacht in all Categories except 5 or 6 for which see Appendix J or L.
RED TYPE indicates a significant changes in 2010
ISAF Guidance notes and recommendations are in italics
US SAILING prescriptions are printed in bold, italic letters
The use of the masculine gender shall be taken to mean either gender
1.01 Purpose and Use
1.01.1 It is the purpose of these Special Regulations to establish uniform minimum equipment, accommodation and training standards for monohull and multihull yachts racing offshore. A Proa is excluded from these regulations.
1.01.2 These Special Regulations do not replace, but rather supplement, the requirements of governmental authority, the Racing Rules and the rules of Class Associations and Rating Systems. The attention of persons in charge is called to restrictions in the Rules on the location and movement of equipment.
1.01.3 These Special Regulations, adopted internationally, are strongly recommended for use by all organizers of offshore races. Race Committees may select the category deemed most suitable for the type of race to be sailed.
1.02 Responsibility of Person in Charge
1.02.1 The safety of a yacht and her crew is the sole and inescapable responsibility of the person in charge who must do his best to ensure that the yacht is fully found, thoroughly seaworthy and manned by an experienced crew who have undergone appropriate training and are physically fit to face bad weather. He must be satisfied as to the soundness of hull, spars, rigging, sails and all gear. He must ensure that all safety equipment is properly maintained and stowed and that the crew know where it is kept and how it is to be used.
1.02.2 Neither the establishment of these Special Regulations, their use by race organizers, nor the inspection of a yacht under these Special Regulations in any way limits or reduces the complete and unlimited responsibility of the person in charge.
1.02.3 Decision to race -The responsibility for a yacht's decision to participate in a race or to continue racing is hers alone - RRS Fundamental Rule 4.
1.03 Definitions, Abbreviations, Word Usage
1.03.1 Definitions of Terms used in this document
      TABLE 1
Age Date Month/year of first launch
AIS Automatic Identification Systems
CEN Comité Européen de Normalisation
CPR Cardio-Pulmonary Resuscitation
Coaming includes the transverse after limit of the cockpit over which water would run in the event that when the yacht is floating level the cockpit is flooded or filled to overflowing.
DSC Digital Selective Calling
EN European Norm
EPFS Electronic Position-Fixing System
EPIRB Emergency Position-Indicating Radio Beacon
FA Station The transverse station at which the upper corner of the transom meets the sheerline.
Foul-Weather Suit A foul weather suit is clothing designed to keep the wearer dry and maybe either a jacket and trousers worn together, or a single garment comprising jacket and trousers.
GMDSS Global Maritime Distress & Safety System
GNSS Global Navigation Satellite System
GPIRB EPIRB, with integral GPS position-fixing
ITU International Telecommunications Union
GPS Global Positioning System
Hatch The term hatch includes the entire hatch assembly and also the lid or cover as part of that assembly (the part itself may be described as a hatch).
INMARSAT This is Inmarsat Global Limited, the private company that provides GMDSS satellite distress and safety communications, plus general communications via voice, fax and data
IMO International Maritime Organisation
IMSO The International Mobile Satellite Organisation, the independent, intergovernmental organisation that oversees Inmarsat’s performance of its Public Service Obligations for the GMDSS and reports on these to IMO
ISAF International Sailing Federation.
ISO International Standard or International Organization for Standardization.
Lifeline wire line rigged as guardrail / guardline around the deck
LOA Length overall not including pulpits, bowsprits, boomkins etc.
LWL (Length of) loaded waterline
Monohull Yacht in which the hull depth in any section does not decrease towards the centre-line.
Moveable Ballast Lead or other material including water which has no practical function in the boat other than to increase weight and/or to influence stability and/or trim and which may be moved transversely but not varied in weight while a boat is racing.
ORC Offshore Racing Congress (formerly Offshore Racing Council)
OSR Offshore Special Regulation(s)
Permanently Installed Means the item is effectively built-in by eg bolting, welding, glassing etc. and may not be removed for or during racing.
PLB Personal Locator Beacon
Proa Asymmetric Catamaran
RRS ISAF - Racing Rules of Sailing
SAR Search and Rescue
SART Search and Rescue Transponder
Series Date Month & Year of first launch of the first yacht of the production series
SOLAS Safety of Life at Sea Convention
Safety Line A tether used to connect a safety harness to a strong point
Securely Fastened Held strongly in place by a method (eg rope lashings, wing-nuts) which will safely retain the fastened object in severe conditions including a 180 degree capsize and allows for the item to be removed and replaced during racing
Static Ballast Lead or other material including water which has no practical function in the boat other than to increase weight and/or to influence stability and/or trim and which may not be moved or varied in weight while a boat is racing.
Static Safety Line A safety line (usually shorter than a safety line carried with a harness) kept clipped on at a work-station
Variable Ballast Water carried for the sole purpose of influencing stability and/or trim and which may be varied in weight and/or moved while a boat is racing.
1.03.2 The words "shall" and "must" are mandatory, and "should" and "may" are permissive.
1.03.3 The word "yacht" shall be taken as fully interchangeable with the word "boat".
2.01 Categories of Events
      In many types of race, ranging from trans-oceanic sailed under adverse conditions to short-course day races sailed in protected waters, six categories are established, to provide for differences in the minimum standards of safety and accommodation required for such varying circumstances:
2.01.2 Category 1
      US SAILING prescribes that Category 1 races are of long distance, well offshore, in large unprotected bays, and in waters where large waves, strong currents, or conditions leading to rapid onset of hypothermia are possible, where yachts must be completely self-sufficient for extended periods of time, capable of withstanding heavy storms and prepared to meet serious emergencies without the expectation of outside assistance.
2.02 Inspection
      A yacht may be inspected at any time. If she does not comply with these Special Regulations her entry may be rejected, or she will be liable to disqualification or such other penalty as may be prescribed by the national authority or the race organizers.
2.03 General Requirements
2.03.1 All equipment required by Special Regulations shall:-
a) function properly
b) be regularly checked, cleaned and serviced
c) when not in use be stowed in conditions in which deterioration is minimised
d) be readily accessible
e) be of a type, size and capacity suitable and adequate for the intended use and size of the yacht.
2.03.2 Heavy items:
a) ballast, ballast tanks and associated equipment shall be permanently installed
b) heavy movable items including e.g. batteries, stoves, gas bottles, tanks, toolboxes and anchors and chain shall be securely fastened
c) heavy items for which fixing is not specified in Special Regulations shall be permanently installed or securely fastened, as appropriate
2.03.3 When to show navigation lights
a) navigation lights (OSR 3.27) shall be shown as required by the International Regulations for Preventing Collision at Sea, (Part C and Technical Annex 1). All yachts shall exhibit sidelights and a sternlight at the required times.
3.01 Strength of Build, Ballast and Rig
      Yachts shall be strongly built, watertight and, particularly with regard to hulls, decks and cabin trunks capable of withstanding solid water and knockdowns. They must be properly rigged and ballasted, be fully seaworthy and must meet the standards set forth herein. Shrouds shall never be disconnected.
3.02 Watertight Integrity of a Hull
3.02.1 A hull, including, deck, coach roof, windows, hatches and all other parts, shall form an integral, essentially watertight unit and any openings in it shall be capable of being immediately secured to maintain this integrity.
3.02.2 Centreboard and daggerboard trunks and the like shall not open into the interior of a hull except via a watertight inspection/maintenance hatch of which the opening shall be entirely above the waterline of the yacht floating level in normal trim.
3.02.3 A canting keel pivot shall be completely contained within a watertight enclosure which shall comply with OSR 3.02.2. Access points in the watertight enclosure for control and actuation systems or any other purpose shall comply with OSR 3.02.1.
3.02.4 Moveable ballast systems shall be fitted with a manual control and actuation secondary system which shall be capable of controlling the full sailing load of the keel in the event of failure of the primary system. Such failures would include electrical and hydraulic failure and mechanical failure of the components and the structure to which it mounts. The system must be capable of being operational quickly and shall be operable at any angle of heel. It would be desirable if this system was capable of securing the keel on the centreline.
3.03 Hull Construction Standards (Scantlings)
3.03.4 A multihull shall comply with appendix M to these OSR.
3.05 Stability and Flotation - Multihulls
      Attention is drawn to ISO 12217-2.
3.05.1 Adequate watertight bulkheads and compartments (which may include permanently installed flotation material) in each hull shall be provided to ensure that a multihull is effectively unsinkable and capable of floating in a stable position with at least half the length of one hull flooded. (see OSR 3.13.2).
3.05.2 Multihulls built on or after Jan 1999 shall in every hull without accommodation be divided at intervals of not more than 4m (13ft 3") by one or more transverse watertight bulkheads
3.05.3 A yacht shall be designed and built to resist capsize.
3.07 Exits and Escape Hatches - Multihulls
3.07.1 Exits
a) In a multihull of 8m (26.2ft) LOA and greater, each hull which contains accommodation shall have at least two exits.
b) In a multihull of less than 8m (26.2ft) LOA each hull which contains accommodation shall have at least two exits.
3.07.2 Escape Hatches, Underside Clipping Points & Handholds
a) In a multihull of 12m (39.4ft) LOA and greater each hull which contains accommodation shall:-
       i have an escape hatch for access to and from the hull in the event of an inversion;
      ii when first launched on or after January 2003 have a minimum clearance diameter through each escape hatch of 450mm or when an escape hatch is not circular, sufficient clearance to allow a crew member to pass through fully clothed;
     iii when first launched prior to January 2003, if possible have each escape hatch in compliance with the dimensions in OSR 3.07.2(a)(ii);
      iv when the yacht is inverted have each escape hatch above the waterline;
       v when first launched on or after January 2001 have each escape hatch at or near the midships station;
      vi in a catamaran first launched on or after January 2003 have each escape hatch on the side nearest the vessel's central axis.
b) A trimaran of 12m (39.4ft) LOA and greater first launched on or after 1/03 shall have at least two escape hatches in compliance with the dimensions in OSR 3.07.2(a) (ii)
c) Each escape hatch must have been opened both from inside and outside within 6 months prior to an intended race
d) A multihull shall have on the underside appropriate handholds/clipping points sufficient for all crew (on a trimaran these shall be around the central hull).
e) A catamaran first launched on or after 1/03 with a central nacelle shall have on the underside around the central nacelle, handholds of sufficient capacity to enable all persons on board to hold on and/or clip on securely
f) In a catamaran with a central nacelle, it is recommended that each hull has an emergency refuge, accessible via a special hatch in the side of the hull nearest the vessel's central axis, which hatch may be opened and closed from the inside and outside
3.08 Hatches & Companionways
3.08.1 No hatch forward of the maximum beam station, other than a hatch in the side of a coachroof, shall open in such a way that the lid or cover moves into the open position towards the interior of the hull (excepting ports having an area of less than 0.071m2 (110 sq in)).
3.08.2 A hatch fitted forward of the maximum beam station, located on the side of the coachroof, opening into the interior of the boat ,and of area greater than 0.071m2 shall comply with ISO12216 design category A and and be clearly labelled and used in accordance with the following instruction: “NOT TO BE OPENED AT SEA” Attention is drawn to SR 3.02.1
3.08.3 A hatch shall be:
b) permanently attached
c) capable of being firmly shut immediately and remaining firmly shut in a 180 degree capsize (inversion)
3.08.4 A companionway hatch shall:
a) be fitted with a strong securing arrangement which shall be operable from the exterior and interior including when the yacht is inverted
b) have any blocking devices:
       i capable of being retained in position with the hatch open or shut
      ii whether or not in position in the hatchway, secured to the yacht (e.g. by lanyard) for the duration of the race, to prevent their being lost overboard
     iii permit exit in the event of inversion
3.08.7 A companionway hatch extending below the local sheerline and shall comply with either (a) or (b):
a) be capable of being blocked off up to the level of the local sheerline, whilst giving access to the interior with the blocking devices (e.g. washboards) in place with a minimum sill height of 300 mm.
       i A companionway hatch shall be in compliance with ISO 11812 – Watertight cockpits and quick-draining cockpits to design category A
3.09 Cockpits - Attention is Drawn to ISO 11812
3.09.1 Cockpits shall be structurally strong, self-draining quickly by gravity at all angles of heel and permanently incorporated as an integral part of the hull.
3.09.2 Cockpits must be essentially watertight, that is, all openings to the hull must be capable of being strongly and rigidly secured
3.09.3 A bilge pump outlet pipe shall not be connected to a cockpit drain . See OSR 3.09.8 for cockpit drain minimum sizes
3.09.4 A cockpit sole shall be at least 2% LWL above LWL (or in IMS yachts first launched before 1/03, at least 2% L above LWL)
3.09.5 A bow, lateral, central or stern well shall be considered a cockpit for the purposes of OSR 3.09
3.09.6 In cockpits opening aft to the sea structural openings aft shall be not less in area than 50% maximum cockpit depth x maximum cockpit width.
3.09.7 Cockpit Volume
i) earliest of age or series date before April 1992
      the total volume of all cockpits below lowest coamings shall not exceed 6% (LWL x maximum beam x freeboard abreast the cockpit).
ii) earliest of age or series date April 1992 and after
      as above for the appropriate category except that "lowest coamings" shall not include any aft of the FA station and no extension of a cockpit aft of the working deck shall be included in calculation of cockpit volume
      IMS-rated boats may instead of the terms LWL, maximum beam, freeboard abreast the cockpit, use the IMS terms L, B and FA.
3.09.8 Cockpit Drains
      See OSR 3.09.1. Cockpit drain cross section area (after allowance for screens if fitted) shall be:-
a) in yachts with earliest of age or series date before 1/72 or in any yacht under 8.5m (28ft) LOA - at least that of 2 x 25mm diameter (one inch) unobstructed openings or equivalent
b) in yachts with earliest of age or series date 1/72 and later - at least that of 4 x 20mm diameter (3/4 inch) unobstructed openings or equivalent
      US SAILING prescribes that cockpit drains shall be accessible for cleaning.
3.10 Sea Cocks or Valves
      Sea cocks or valves shall be permanently installed on all through-hull openings below the waterline except integral deck scuppers, speed indicators, depth finders and the like, however a means of closing such openings shall be provided.
3.11 Sheet Winches
      Sheet winches shall be mounted in such a way that an operator is not required to be substantially below deck.
3.12 Mast Step
      The heel of a keel stepped mast shall be securely fastened to the mast step or adjoining structure.
3.13 Watertight Bulkheads
      multihulls also see OSR 3.05
3.13.1 A hull shall have either a watertight "crash" bulkhead within 15% of LOA from the bow and abaft the forward end of LWL, or permanently installed closed-cell foam buoyancy effectively filling the forward 30% LOA of the hull.
3.13.2 Any required watertight bulkhead shall be strongly built to take a full head of water pressure without allowing any leakage into the adjacent compartment.
3.14 Pulpits, Stanchions, Lifelines
3.14.1 When due to the particular design of a multihull it is impractical to precisely follow Special Regulations regarding pulpits, stanchions, lifelines, the regulations for monohulls shall be followed as closely as possible with the aim of minimising the risk of people falling overboard.
      US SAILING prescribes that all crew working areas shall be protected by lifelines or jackstays and safety harness attachment points. Lifelines or jackstays with or without safety harness attachment points may be substituted for pulpits
3.14.2 Lifelines required in Special Regulations shall be "taut".
a) As a guide, when a deflecting force of 50 N (5.1 kgf, 11.2 lbf) is applied to a lifeline midway between supports, the lifeline should not deflect more than 50 mm.
3.14.3 The following shall be provided:
c) lifelines (guardlines) supported on stanchions, which, with pulpits, shall form an effectively continuous barrier around a working deck for man-overboard prevention. Lifelines shall be permanently supported at intervals of not more than 2.20m (86.6") and shall not pass outboard of supporting stanchions
d) upper rails of pulpits at no less height above the working deck than the upper lifelines as in Table 7.
e) Openable upper rails in bow pulpits shall be secured shut whilst racing
f) Pulpits and stanchions shall be permanently installed. When there are sockets or studs, these shall be through-bolted, bonded or welded. The pulpit(s) and/or stanchions fitted to these shall be mechanically retained without the help of the life-lines. Without sockets or studs, pulpits and/or stanchions shall be through-bolted, bonded or welded.
g) The bases of pulpits and stanchions shall not be further inboard from the edge of the appropriate working deck than 5% of maximum beam or 150 mm (6 in), whichever is greater.
h) Stanchion or pulpit or pushpit bases shall not be situated outboard of a working deck. For the purpose of this rule the base shall be taken to include a sleeve or socket into which the tube is fitted but shall exclude a baseplate which carries fixings into the deck or hull.
i) Provided the complete lifeline enclosure is supported by stanchions and pulpit bases effectively within the working deck, lifeline terminals and support struts may be fixed to a hull aft of the working deck
j) Lifelines need not be fixed to a bow pulpit if they terminate at, or pass through, adequately braced stanchions set inside and overlapping the bow pulpit, provided that the gap between the upper lifeline and the bow pulpit does not exceed 150 mm (6 in).
k) Lifelines shall be continuous and fixed only at (or near) the bow and stern. However a bona fide gate shall be permitted in the lifelines on each side of a yacht. Except at its end fittings, the movement of a lifeline in a fore-and-aft direction shall not be constrained. Temporary sleeving in 3.14.6 (c) shall not modify tension in the lifeline.
l) Stanchions shall be straight and vertical except that:-
       i within the first 50 mm (2 in) from the deck, stanchions shall not be displaced horizontally from the point at which they emerge from the deck or stanchion base by more than 10 mm (3/8 in),and
      ii stanchions may be angled to not more than 10 degrees from vertical at any point above 50 mm (2 in) from the deck.
m) It is strongly recommended that designs also comply to ISO 15085
3.14.4 Special Requirements for Pulpits, Stanchions, Lifelines on Multihulls
      The following shall be provided:-
a) on a trimaran - a bow pulpit on the main hull, with lifelines around the main hull supported on stanchions. The lifelines may be interrupted where there are nets or crossbeam wings outboard of the main hull
b) on a trimaran - where a net joins the base of a bow pulpit on the main hull, an additional lifeline from the top of the pulpit to the forward crossbeam at or outboard of the crossbeam mid-point.
c) on a trimaran - at a main or emergency steering position on an outrigger with or without a cockpit, lifelines protecting an arc of 3 meters diameter centred on the steering position. (When measuring between lifelines their taut, undeflected positions shall be taken for this purpose).
d) on a catamaran - lifelines from bow to stern on each hull and transverse lifelines to form an effectively continuous barrier around the working area for man-overboard prevention. The transverse lifelines shall be attached to bow and stern pulpits or superstructure. A webbing, strop or rope (minimum diameter 6mm) shall be rove zig-zag between the transverse lifelines and the net.
3.14.5 Lifeline Height, Vertical Openings, Number of Lifelines
      TABLE 7
LOA earliest of age/seriesdate minimum requirements Category
under 8.5 m(28 ft) before January 1992 taut single lifeline at a height of no less than 450 mm (18 in) above the working deck. No vertical opening shall exceed 560 mm (22 in). **
under 8.5 m(28 ft) January 1992and after as for under 8.5 m(28 ft) in table 7 above, except that when an intermediate lifeline is fitted no vertical opening shall exceed 380 mm (15 in). **
8.5 m (28 ft) and over before January 1993 taut double lifeline with upper lifeline at a height of no less than 600 mm (24 in) above the working deck. No vertical opening shall exceed 560 mm (22 in) **
8.5 m (28 ft)and over January 1993 and after as 8.5 m (28 ft) and over in Table 7 above, except that no vertical opening shall exceed 380 mm (15 in). **
all all on yachts with intermediate lifelines the intermediate line shall be not less than 230 mm (9 in) above the working deck **
      and shall be of the same construction and general arrangements as required for the upper.
3.14.6 Lifeline Minimum Diameters, Required Materials, Specifications
a) Lifelines shall be of :
      - stranded stainless steel wire or
      - single-braided Dyneema® rope
      US SAILING note. An article describing the best techniques for using Dyneema line, particularly in the life line application, is posted at
b) The minimum diameter of all lifelines is specified in table 8 below.
c) Stainless steel lifelines shall be uncoated and used without close-fitting sleeving, however, temporary sleeving may be fitted provided it is regularly removed for inspection.
d) When stainless wire is used, Grade 316 is recommended.
e) When Dyneema® is used, Grade SK75 or SK78 is recommended.
f) A taut lanyard of synthetic rope may be used to secure lifelines provided the gap it closes does not exceed 100 mm (4 in). This lanyard shall be replaced annually at a minimum.
g) All wire, fittings, anchorage points, fixtures and lanyards shall comprise a lifeline enclosure system which has at all points at least the breaking strength of the required lifeline wire.
      TABLE 8
LOA minimum wire or rope diameter
under 8.5 m (28ft) 3 mm (1/8 in)
8.5m - 13 m 4 mm (5/32 in)
over 13 m (43 ft) 5 mm (3/16 in)
3.14.7 Pulpits, Stanchions, Lifelines - Limitations on Materials
      TABLE 9
Earliest of Age or Series Date detail
before January 1987 carbon fibre is not recommended in stanchions pulpits and lifelines.
January 1987 and after stanchions, pulpits and lifelines shall not be made of carbon fibre.
3.15 Multihull Nets or Trampolines
3.15.1 The word "net" is interchangeable with the word "trampoline"
      A net shall be:-
a) essentially horizontal
b) made from durable woven webbing, water permeable fabric, or mesh with openings not larger than 5.08cm (2 inches) in any dimension. Attachment points shall be planned to avoid chafe. The junction between a net and a yacht shall present no risk of foot trapping
c) solidly fixed at regular intervals on transverse and longitudinal support lines and shall be fine-stitched to a bolt rope
d) able to carry the full weight of the crew either in normal working conditions at sea or in case of capsize when the yacht is inverted.
e) It is recommended that lines used to tie the nets should be individually tied and not continuously connected to more than four attachment points per connecting line
3.15.2 Trimarans with Double Crossbeams
a) A trimaran with double crossbeams shall have nets on each side covering:-
b) the rectangles formed by the crossbeams, central hull and outriggers
c) the triangles formed by the aft end of the central pulpit, the mid-point of each forward crossbeam, and the intersection of the crossbeam and the central hull
d) the triangles formed by the aftermost part of the cockpit or steering position (whichever is furthest aft), the mid-point of each after crossbeam, and the intersection of the crossbeam and the central hull; except that:-
e) the requirement in OSR 3.15.2(d) shall not apply when cockpit coamings and/or lifelines are present which comply with the minimum height requirements in Table 7
3.15.3 Trimarans with Single Crossbeams
a) A trimaran with a single crossbeam shall have nets between the central hull and each outrigger:-
b) on each side between two straight lines from the intersection of the crossbeam and the outrigger, respectively to the aft end of the pulpit on the central hull, and to the aftermost point of the cockpit or steering position on the central hull (whichever is furthest aft)
3.16 Catamarans
a) On a catamaran the total net surface shall be limited:
b) laterally by the hulls
c) longitudinally by transverse stations through the forestay base, and the aftermost point of the boom lying fore and aft. However, a catamaran with a central nacelle (non-immersed) may satisfy the regulations for a trimaran
3.18 Toilet
3.18.1 A toilet, permanently installed
3.19 Bunks
3.19.2 Bunks, permanently installed
3.20 Cooking Facilities
3.20.1 A cooking stove, permanently installed or securely fastened with safe accessible fuel shutoff control and capable of being safely operated in a seaway.
3.21 Drinking Water Tanks & Drinking Water
3.21.1 Drinking Water Tanks
a) A yacht shall have a permanently installed delivery pump and water tank(s):
      ii dividing the water supply into at least two compartments
3.21.3 Emergency Drinking Water
a) At least 9 litres (2 UK gallons, 2.4 US gallons) of drinking water for emergency use shall be provided in a dedicated and sealed container or container(s)
3.22 Hand Holds
      Adequate hand holds shall be fitted below deck so that crew members may move about safely at sea.
      A hand hold should be capable of withstanding without rupture a side force of 1500N - attention is drawn to ISO 15085.
3.23 Bilge Pumps and Buckets
3.23.1 No bilge pump may discharge into a cockpit unless that cockpit opens aft to the sea.
3.23.2 Bilge pumps shall not be connected to cockpit drains. (OSR 3.09)
3.23.3 Bilge pumps and strum boxes shall be readily accessible for maintenance and for clearing out debris
3.23.4 Unless permanently installed, each bilge pump handle shall be provided with a lanyard or catch or similar device to prevent accidental loss
3.23.5 The following shall be provided:
b) one permanently installed manual bilge pump either above or below deck. The pump shall be operable with all cockpit seats, hatches and companionways shut and shall have a permanently installed discharge pipe.
c) multihulls shall have provision to pump out all watertight compartments (except those filled with impermeable buoyancy).
f) two buckets of stout construction each with at least 9 litres (2 UK gallons, 2.4 US gallons) capacity. Each bucket to have a lanyard.
3.24 Compass
3.24.1 The following shall be provided:-
a) a marine magnetic compass, independent of any power supply, permanently installed and correctly adjusted with deviation card, and
b) a compass which may be hand-held
3.25 Halyards.
      No mast shall have less than two halyards, each capable of hoisting a sail.
      Boom Support. US SAILING prescribes that some means must exist to prevent the boom from dropping if support from the mainsail and/or halyard fails. Topping lifts or supporting vangs are acceptable for this purpose.
3.27 Navigation Lights (see OSR 2.03.3)
3.27.1 Navigation lights shall be mounted so that they will not be masked by sails or the heeling of the yacht.
3.27.2 Navigation lights shall not be mounted below deck level and should be at no less height than immediately under the upper lifeline.
3.27.3 Navigation light intensity
      TABLE 11
LOA Guide to required minimum power rating for an electric bulb in a navigation light
under 12 m (39.4 ft) 10 W
12 m (39.4 ft) and above 25 W
      US SAILING prescribes that in the US compliance with the recommendations of COLREGS shall suffice in satisfying these regulations. COLREGS requirements are as follows;
      Table 14
LOA Light Luminous Minimum Range
         of Visibility
under 39.4 ft Side 0.9 candelas 1 mile
   Stern 4.3 candelas 2 miles
39.4 ft and above Side 4.3 candelas 2 miles
and less than 164 ft Stern 4.3 candelas 2 miles
3.27.4 Reserve navigation lights shall be carried having the same minimum specifications as the navigation lights above, with a separable power source, and wiring or supply system essentially separate from that used for the normal navigation lights
3.27.5 spare bulbs for navigation lights shall be carried, or for lights not dependent on bulbs, appropriate spares.
3.28 Engines, Generators, Fuel
3.28.1 Propulsion Engines
a) Engines and associated systems shall be installed in accordance with their manufacturers’ guidelines and shall be of a type, strength, capacity, and installation suitable for the size and intended use of the yacht.
b) An inboard propulsion engine when fitted shall: be provided with a permanently installed exhaust, coolant, and fuel supply systems and fuel tank(s); be securely covered; and have adequate protection from the effects of heavy weather.
c) A propulsion engine required by Special Regulations shall provide a minimum speed in knots of (1.8 x square root of LWL in metres) or (square root of LWL in feet)
f) Boats of less than 12.0 m hull length may be provided with an inboard propulsion engine, or an outboard engine together with permanently installed fuel supply systems and fuel tank(s) may be used as an alternative.
3.28.2 Generator
      A separate generator for electricity is optional. However, when a separate generator is carried it shall be permanently installed, securely covered, and shall have permanently installed exhaust, cooling and fuel supply systems and fuel tank(s), and have adequate protection from the effects of heavy weather.
3.28.3 Fuel Systems
a) Each fuel tank provided with a shutoff valve. Except for permanently installed linings or liners, a flexible tank is not permitted as a fuel tank.
b) The propulsion engine shall have a minimum amount of fuel which may be specified in the Notice of Race but if not, shall be sufficient to be able to meet charging requirements for the duration of the race and to motor at the above minimum speed for at least 8 hours
3.28.4 Battery Systems
a) When an electric starter is the only method for starting the engine, the yacht shall have a separate battery, the primary purpose of which is to start the engine
c) It is recommended that consideration be given to the installation of sealed batteries, noting however that a special charging device may be specified by the battery manufacturers
3.29 Communications Equipment, EPFS (Electronic Position-Fixing System), Radar, AIS
      Provision of GMDSS and DSC is unlikely to be mandatory for small craft during the term of the present Special Regulations However it is recommended that persons in charge include these facilities when installing new equipment.
3.29.1 The following shall be provided:
a) A marine radio transceiver (or if stated in the Notice of Race, an installed satcom terminal), and
       i an emergency antenna when the regular antenna depends upon the mast.
b) When the marine radio transceiver is VHF:
       i it shall have a rated output power of 25W
      ii it shall have a masthead antenna, and co-axial feeder cable with not more than 40% power loss
     iii the following types and lengths of co-axial feeder cable will meet the requirements of OSR 3.29.1 (b)(ii): (a) up to 15m (50ft) - type RG8X ("mini 8"); (b) 15-28m (50-90ft) - type RG8U; (c) 28-43m (90-140ft) - type 9913F (uses conventional connectors, available from US supplier Belden); (d) 43-70m) 140-230ft - type LMR600 (uses special connectors, available from US supplier Times Microwave).
      iv it should include channel 72 (an international ship-ship channel which, by common use, has become widely accepted as primary choice for ocean racing yachts anywhere in the world)
e) A hand-held marine VHF transceiver, watertight or with a waterproof cover. When not in use to be stowed in a grab bag or emergency container (see OSR 4.21)
f) Independent of a main radio transceiver, a radio receiver capable of receiving weather bulletins
i) An EPFS (Electronic Position-Fixing System) (e.g. GPS)
n) An AIS Transponder
3.29.2 Yachts are reminded that no reflector, active or passive, is a guarantee of detection or tracking by a vessel using radar.
a) The attention of persons in charge is drawn to legislation in force or imminent affecting the territorial seas of some countries in which the carriage of an AIS set is or will be mandatory for certain vessels including relatively small craft.
(for water & fuel see OSR 3.21 and OSR 3.28)
4.01 Sail Letters & Numbers
4.01.1 Yachts which are not in an ISAF International Class or Recognized Class shall comply with RRS 77 and Appendix G as closely as possible, except that sail numbers allotted by a State authority are acceptable .
4.01.2 Sail numbers and letters of the size carried on the mainsail must be displayed by alternative means when none of the numbered sails is set.
4.02 Hull marking (colour blaze)
4.02.1 To assist in SAR location:-
b) Each yacht is recommended to show at least 1 m^2 of fluorescent pink or orange or yellow colour as far as possible in a single area on the coachroof and/or deck where it can best be seen
4.02.2 Multihulls shall show on the underside, where they can be seen when inverted, an solid area of highly-visible colour (e.g. Day-Glo pink, orange, or yellow) of at least 1m^2
4.02.3 Each yacht is recommended to show on each underwater appendage an area of highly-visible colour
4.03 Soft Wood Plugs
      Soft wood plugs, tapered and of the appropriate size, shall be attached or stowed adjacent to the appropriate fitting for every through-hull opening.
4.04 Jackstays, Clipping Points and Static Safety Lines
4.04.1 The following shall be provided:
a) Jackstays:-
      shall be provided-
       i attached to through-bolted or welded deck plates or other suitable and strong anchorage fitted on deck, port and starboard of the yacht's centre line to provide secure attachments for safety harness:-
      ii comprising stainless steel 1 x 19 wire of minimum diameter 5 mm (3/16 in), or webbing of equivalent strength;
      US SAILING prescribes that wire jackstays may be of configurations other than 1 X 19.
     iii which, when made from stainless steel wire shall be uncoated and used without any sleeving;
      iv 20kN (2,040 kgf or 4,500 lbf) min breaking strain webbing is recommended;
       v at least two of which should be fitted on the underside of a multihull in case of inversion.
4.04.2 Clipping Points:-
      shall be provided-
a) attached to through-bolted or welded deck plates or other suitable and strong anchorage points adjacent to stations such as the helm, sheet winches and masts, where crew members work for long periods:-
b) which, together with jackstays and static safety lines shall enable a crew member-
       i to clip on before coming on deck and unclip after going below;
      ii whilst continuously clipped on, to move readily between the working areas on deck and the cockpit(s) with the minimum of clipping and unclipping operations.
c) The provision of clipping points shall enable two-thirds of the crew to be simultaneously clipped on without depending on jackstays
d) In a trimaran with a rudder on the outrigger, adequate clipping points shall be provided that are not part of the deck gear or the steering mechanism, in order that the steering mechanism can be reached by a crew member whilst clipped on.
e) Warning - U-bolts as clipping points - see OSR 5.02.1(a)
4.05 Fire Extinguishers
      Shall be provided as follows:
4.05.1 Fire extinguishers, at least two, readily accessible in suitable and different parts of the yacht
4.05.2 Fire Extinguishers, at least two, of minimum 2kgs each of dry powder or equivalent
4.06 Anchor(s)
4.06.1 An anchor or anchors shall be carried according to the table below:
a) The following anchors shall be provided
       i For yachts of 8.5 m LOA (28 ft) and over there shall be 2 anchors together with a suitable combination of chain and rope, all ready for immediate use
      ii For yachts under 8.5 m LOA (28 ft) there shall be 1 anchor together with a suitable combination of chain and rope, all ready for immediate use
4.07 Flashlight(s)
4.07.1 The following shall be provided:-
a) a watertight, high-powered flashlight or spotlight, with spare batteries and bulbs, and
b) a watertight flashlight with spare batteries and bulb
4.08 First Aid Manual and First Aid Kit
4.08.1 A suitable First Aid Manual shall be provided
      In the absence of a National Authority's requirement, the latest edition of one of the following is recommended:-
a) International Medical Guide for Ships, World Health Organisation, Geneva
c) Le Guide de la medecine a distance, by Docteur J Y Chauve, published by Distance Assistance BP33 F-La Baule, cedex, France. An English translation may be available.
      US SAILING endorses the above and additionally recommends the following manuals: Advanced First Aid by Peter Eastman, M.D., Cornell Maritime Press and A Comprehensive Guide to Marine Medicine by Eric A. Weiss, M.D. and Michael E. Jacobs, M.D., Adventure Medical Kit.
4.08.2 A First Aid Kit shall be provided
4.08.3 The contents and storage of the First Aid Kit should reflect the guidelines of the Manual carried, the likely conditions and duration of the passage, and the number of people aboard the yacht.
4.09 Foghorn
      A foghorn shall be provided
4.10 Radar Reflector, AIS (Automatic Identification System)
4.10.1 A passive Radar Reflector (that is, a Radar Reflector without any power) shall be provided
a) If a radar reflector is octahedral it must have a minimum diagonal measurement of 456 mm (18in), or if not octahedral must have a documented RCS (radar cross-section) of not less than 10 m2. The minimum effective height above water is 4.0 m (13 ft).
      US SAILING prescribes that in the US, radar reflectors shall have a minimum documented "equivalent echoing area" of 6 sq. m. Octahedral reflectors shall have a minimum diameter of 12 inches.
b) The passive and active devices referred to in these notes and in 4.10.1 and 4.10.2 above are primarily intended for use in the X (9GHz) band
4.10.2 The most effective radar response from a yacht may be provided by an RTE (Radar Target Enhancer) which may be on board in addition to the required passive reflector. An RTE should conform to Recommendation ITU-R 1176. An RTE is strongly recommended.
b) The display of a passive reflector or the operation of an RTE is for the person in charge to decide according to prevailing conditions.
4.10.3 A passive reflector in compliance with revised ISO8729 (revision in progress at 1/06) offers improved performance over ealier models and has a size typified by a cylinder of not more than weight 5kg, height 750mm and dia 300mm. When revised ISO 8729 is published the Special Regulations regarding radar reflectors will be reviewed and may be changed.
4.10.4 S (3GHz) band radar is often used by ships to complement X (9GHz) band radar. On S (3GHz) band a conventional reflector or RTE offers about 1/10 the response obtained on the X (9GHz) band.
4.11 Navigation Equipment
4.11.1 Charts
      Navigational charts (not solely electronic), light list and chart plotting equipment shall be provided
4.11.2 Reserve Navigation System
      Navigators are recommended to carry a sextant with suitable tables and a timepiece or an adequate reserve navigation system so that total reliance is not placed on dead-reckoning and a single form of EPFS (Electronic Position-Fixing System) (see Volpe Report at
4.12 Safety Equipment Location Chart
      A safety equipment location chart in durable waterproof material shall be displayed in the main accommodation where it can best be seen, clearly marked with the location of principal items of safety equipment.
4.13 Echo Sounder or Lead Line
4.13.1 An echo sounder or lead line shall be provided
4.14 Speedometer or Distance Measuring Instrument (log)
      A speedometer or distance measuring instrument (log) shall be provided
4.15 Emergency Steering
4.15.1 Emergency steering shall be provided as follows:
a) except when the principal method of steering is by means of an unbreakable metal tiller, an emergency tiller capable of being fitted to the rudder stock;
b) crews must be aware of alternative methods of steering the yacht in any sea condition in the event of rudder loss. At least one method must have been proven to work on board the yacht. An inspector may require that this method be demonstrated.
4.16 Tools and Spare Parts
      Tools and spare parts, including effective means to quickly disconnect or sever the standing rigging from the hull shall be provided.
4.17 Yacht's name
      Yacht's name shall be on miscellaneous buoyant equipment, such as lifejackets, cushions, lifebuoys, lifeslings, grab bags etc.
4.18 Marine grade retro-reflective material
      Marine grade retro-reflective material shall be fitted to lifebuoys, lifeslings, liferafts and lifejackets. See OSRs 5.04, 5.08.
4.19 EPIRBs
4.19.1 A 406 MHz EPIRB shall be provided
b) It is recommended that a 406 MHz EPIRB should include an internal GPS, and also a 121.5MHz transmitter for local homing.
c) Every 406 MHz EPIRB shall be properly registered with the appropriate authority.
d) EPIRBs should be tested in accordance with manufacturer's instructions when first commissioned and then at least annually.
e) A list of registration numbers of 406 EPIRBs should be notified to event organizers and kept available for immediate use.
f) Consideration should be given to the provision of a locator device (eg an "Argos" beacon) operating on non - SAR frequencies, to aid salvage if a yacht is abandoned.
g) Beacons with only 121.5MHz are no longer recommended for distress alerting. Satellite processing of 121.5 MHz is being phased out. 121.5MHz will continue to be used for local homing by on-board D/F systems and for local homing by SAR units. Type "E" EPIRBs are no longer supported and should be replaced immediately.
h) See OSR 3.29.1(h) for on-board D/F and OSR 5.07.1(b) for personal EPIRBs (PLBs)
      US SAILING requires the use of 406 EPIRBs (with or without GPS input), as USCG advises that rescue efforts will be launched immediately upon receipt of a distress signal from these units. USCG also advises that PLB and INMARSAT "E" transmissions are not monitored by U.S. Rescue Coordination Centers and that slight delays are likely to occur while the commercial ground stations forward an alert to the USCG.
4.20 Liferafts
4.20.1 Liferaft Construction and Packed Equipment
4.20.2 Liferaft(s) shall be provided capable of carrying the whole crew when each liferaft shall comply with either:-
a) Liferafts shall comply with SOLAS LSA code 1997 Chapter IV or later version except that they are acceptable with a capacity of 4 persons and may be packed in a valise. A SOLAS liferaft shall contain at least a SOLAS "A" pack or
b) for liferafts manufactured prior to January 2003 (1/06 in the U.S.) OSR Appendix A part I (ORC), or
c) OSR Appendix A part II (ISAF) when, unless otherwise specified by a race organizer, the floor shall include thermal insulation, or
d) ISO 9650 Part I Type I Group A (ISO) when each liferaft shall contain at least a Pack 2 (<24h) and-
       i shall have a semi-rigid boarding ramp, and
      ii shall be so arranged that any high-pressure hose shall not impede the boarding process, and
     iii shall have a topping-up means provided for any inflatable boarding ramp, and
      iv when the liferaft is designed with a single ballast pocket this shall be accepted provided the liferaft otherwise complies with ISO 9650 and meets a suitable test of ballast pocket strength devised by the manufacturer and
       v compliance with OSR 4.20.2 (d) i-iv shall be indicated on the liferaft certificate.
      US SAILING recommends that liferafts be equipped with insulated floors for events that take place in waters of less than 68 deg F (20deg C).
      US SAILING prescribes that liferafts shall be equipped with canopies.
4.20.3 Liferaft Packing and Stowage
      A Liferaft shall be either:-
a) packed in a transportable rigid container or canister and stowed on the working deck or in the cockpit, or:-
b) packed in a transportable rigid container or canister or in a valise and stowed in a purpose-built rigid compartment containing liferaft(s) only and opening into or adjacent to the cockpit or working deck, or through a transom, provided that:-
       i each compartment is watertight or self-draining (self-draining compartments will be counted as part of the cockpit volume except when entirely above working deck level or when draining independently overboard from a transom stowage - see OSR 3.09) and-
      ii the cover of each compartment is capable of being easily opened under water pressure, and-
     iii the compartment is designed and built to allow a liferaft to be removed and launched quickly and easily, or-
      iv in a yacht with age or series date before June 2001, a liferaft may be packed in a valise not exceeding 40kg securely stowed below deck adjacent to a companionway.
v) Liferaft stowage on a multihull shall be such that each liferaft may be readily removed and launched whether or not the yacht is inverted.
c) The end of each liferaft painter should be permanently made fast to a strong point on board the yacht.
4.20.4 Liferaft Launching
a) Each raft shall be capable of being got to the lifelines or launched within 15 seconds.
b) Each liferaft of more than 40kg weight should be stowed in such a way that the liferaft can be dragged or slid into the sea without significant lifting
4.20.5 Liferaft Servicing and Inspection
      IMPORTANT NOTICE Recent evidence has shown that packaged liferafts are vulnerable to serious damage when dropped (eg from a boat onto a marina pontoon) or when subjected to the weight of a crew member or heavy object (eg an anchor). Damage can be caused internally by the weight of the heavy steel CO2 bottle abrading or splitting neighbouring layers of buoyancy tube material. ISAF has instituted an investigation into this effect and as an interim measure requires that every valise-packed liferaft shall have an annual certificate of servicing. A liferaft should be taken for servicing if there is any sign of damage or deterioration (including on the underside of the pack). Persons in charge should insist on great care in handling liferafts and apply the rules NO STEP and DO NOT DROP UNLESS LAUNCHING INTO THE SEA.
a) Certificates or copies, of servicing and/or inspection shall be kept on board the yacht. Every SOLAS liferaft and every valise-packed liferaft shall have a valid annual certificate of new or serviced status from the manufacturer or his approved service station.
b) A liferaft built to OSR Appendix A part I ("ORC") packed in a rigid container or canister shall either be serviced annually or may, when the manufacturer so specifies, be inspected annually (not necessarily unpacked) provided the yacht has on board written confirmation from the manufacturer's approved service station stating that the inspection was satisfactory.
c) A liferaft built to OSR Appendix A part II ("ISAF") packed in a rigid container or canister shall either be serviced annually or may, when the manufacturer so specifies, have its first service no longer than 3 years after commissioning and its second service no longer than 2 years after the first. Subsequent servicves shall be at intervals of not more than 12 months.
d) Liferaft servicing certificates shall state the specification that the liferaft was built to. See OSR 4.20.2
4.21.2 Grab Bags to Accompany Liferafts
a) A yacht is recommended to have for each liferaft, a grab bag with the following minimum contents. A grab bag should have inherent flotation, at least 0.1 m^2 area of fluorescent orange colour on the outside, should be marked with the name of the yacht, and should have a lanyard and clip.
b) Note: it is not intended to duplicate in a grab bag items required by other OSRs to be on board the yacht - these recommendations cover only the stowage of those items
4.21.3 Grab Bag Recommended Contents
a) 2 red parachute and 2 red hand flares and cyalume-type chemical light sticks (red flares compliant with SOLAS)
b) watertight hand-held EPFS (Electronic Position-Fixing System) (eg GPS) in at least one of the grab bags carried by a yacht
c) SART (Search and Rescue Transponder) in at least one of the grab bags carried by a yacht
d) a combined 406MHz/121.5MHz or type "E" EPIRB (see OSR 4.19.1) in at least one of the grab bags carried by a yacht
e) water in re-sealable containers or a hand-operated desalinator plus containers for water
f) a watertight hand-held marine VHF transceiver plus a spare set of batteries
g) a watertight flashlight with spare batteries and bulb
h) dry suits or thermal protective aids or survival bags
i) second sea anchor for the liferaft (not required if the liferaft has already a spare sea anchor in its pack) (recommended standard ISO 17339) with swivel and >30m line diameter >9.5 mm
j) two safety tin openers (if appropriate)
k) first-aid kit including at least 2 tubes of sunscreen. All dressings should be capable of being effectively used in wet conditions. The first-aid kit should be clearly marked and re-sealable.
l) signalling mirror
m) high-energy food (min 10 000kJ per person recommended for Cat Zero)
n) nylon string, polythene bags, seasickness tablets (min 6 per person recommended)
o) watertight hand-held aviation VHF transceiver (if race area warrants)
4.22 Lifebuoys
4.22.1 The following shall be provided within easy reach of the helmsman and ready for instant use:
a) a lifebuoy with a self-igniting light and a drogue or a Lifesling with a self-igniting light and without a drogue.
      For Categories 0,1,2,3 US SAILING prescribes that the lifebuoy in OSR 4.22.1 a) above shall be a Lifesling (without a drogue), equipped with a self-igniting light within easy reach of the helmsman and ready for instant use. (See Appendix D).
b) In addition to a) above, one lifebuoy within easy reach of the helmsman and ready for instant use, equipped with:
       i a whistle, a drogue, a self-igniting light and
      ii a pole and flag. The pole shall be either permanently extended or be capable of being fully automatically extended (not extendable by hand) in less than 20 seconds. It shall be attached to the lifebuoy with 3 m (10 ft) of floating line and is to be of a length and so ballasted that the flag will fly at least 1.8 m (6 ft) off the water.
4.22.2 When at least two lifebuoys (and/or Lifeslings) are carried, at least one of them shall depend entirely on permanent (eg foam) buoyancy.
4.22.3 Each inflatable lifebuoy and any automatic device (eg pole and flag extended by compressed gas) shall be tested and serviced at intervals in accordance with its manufacturer's instructions.
4.22.4 Each lifebuoy or lifesling shall be fitted with marine grade retro-reflective material (4.18).
4.23 Pyrotechnic and Light Signals
4.23.1 Pyrotechnic signals shall be provided conforming to SOLAS LSA Code Chapter III Visual Signals and not older than the stamped expiry date (if any) or if no expiry date stamped , not older than 4 years.
red parachute flares LSA III 3.1 red hand flares LSA III 3.2 orange smoke LSA III 3.3 race category
6 4 2 MoMu0,1
4 4 2 MoMu2,3
   4 2 Mo4
2 4 2 Mu4
      TABLE 13
4.23.2 The following lights shall be provided and readily available for the purpose of collision avoidance:
a) a watertight white torch (flashlight) with spare batteries and bulb
b) a watertight, high-powered white spotlight (searchlight) with spare batteries and bulbs
4.24 Heaving Line
a) a heaving line shall be provided 15 m - 25 m (50 ft - 75 ft) length readily accessible to cockpit.
b) the "throwing sock" type is recommended - see Appendix D
      US SAILING prescribes that the heaving line be of 1/4 in. (6 mm) minimum diameter, floating, UV-inhibited and readily accessible to the cockpit.
4.25 Cockpit Knife
      A strong, sharp knife, sheathed and securely restrained shall be provided readily accessible from the deck or a cockpit.
4.26 Storm & Heavy Weather Sails
4.26.1 Design
a) it is strongly recommended that persons in charge consult their designer and sailmaker to decide the most effective size for storm and heavy weather sails. The purpose of these sails is to provide safe propulsion for the yacht in severe weather -they are not intended as part of the racing inventory. The areas below are maxima. Smaller areas are likely to suit some yachts according to their stability and other characteristics.
4.26.2 High Visibility
a) it is strongly recommended that every storm sail should either be of highly-visible coloured material (eg dayglo pink, orange or yellow) or have a highly-visible coloured patch added on each side; and also that a rotating wing mast used in lieu of a trysail should have a highly-visible coloured patch on each side
4.26.3 Materials
a) aromatic polyamides, carbon and similar fibres shall not be used in a trysail or storm jib but spectra/dyneema and similar materials are permitted.
b) it is strongly recommended that a heavy-weather jib does not contain aromatic polyamides, carbon and similar fibres other than spectra/dyneema.
4.26.4 The following shall be provided:-
a) sheeting positions on deck for each storm and heavy-weather sail;
b) for each storm or heavy-weather jib, a means to attach the luff to the stay, independent of any luff-groove device. A heavy weather jib shall have the means of attachment readily available. A storm jib shall have the means of attachment permanently attached;
c) a storm trysail which shall be capable of being attached to the mast and sheeted independently of the boom with area not greater than 17.5% mainsail luff length x mainsail foot length. The storm trysail shall have neither headboard nor battens, however a storm trysail is not required in a yacht with a rotating wing mast which can adequately substitute for a trysail;
d) the storm trysail as required by OSR 4.26.4 (c) shall have the yacht's sail number and letter(s) shall be placed on both sides of the trysail (or on a rotating wing mast as substitute for a trysail) in as large a size as practicable;
e) a storm jib of area not greater than 5% height of the foretriangle squared, with luff maximum length 65% height of the foretriangle;
f) in addition to the storm jib required by OSR 4.26.4 (e), a heavy-weather jib (or heavy-weather sail in a yacht with no forestay) of area not greater than 13.5% height of the foretriangle squared and without reef points;
h) in the case of a yacht with an in-mast furling mainsail, the storm trysail must be capable of being set while the mainsail is furled.
i) It is strongly recommended that the heavy-weather jib does not contain aromatic polyamides, carbon fibres and other high modulus fibres.
j) A trysail track should allow for the trysail to be hoisted quickly when the mainsail is lowered whether or not the mainsail is stowed on the main boom.
      In addition, US SAILING prescribes mainsail reefing to reduce the luff by at least 10% for sails built after 1 January 1997.
4.27 Drogue, Sea Anchor
4.27.1 A drogue for deployment over the stern, or alternatively a sea anchor or parachute anchor for deployment over the bow, complete with all gear needed to rig and deploy the sea anchor or drogue, is strongly recommended to withstand long periods in rough conditions (see Appendix F).
4.28 Man Overboard Alarm
4.28.2 A yacht is recommended to be equipped with an EPFS (e.g. GPS) capable of immediately recording a man overboard position from each helm station
4.28.3 A yacht shall be equipped with an EPFS (e.g. GPS) capable of immediately recording a man overboard position from each helm station (From January 2012)
5.01 Lifejacket
5.01.1 Each crew member shall have a lifejacket as follows:-
a) In accordance with ISO 12402 – 3 (Level 150) or equivalent,
      ISO 12402 requires Level 150 lifejackets to be fitted with a mandatory whistle and retro-reflective material. Also, when fitted with a safety harness, ISO 12402 requires that this shall be the full safety harness in accordance with ISO 12401. Any equivalent lifejacket shall have equal requirements.
      Note: persons of larger than average build are generally more buoyant than those of average build and so do not require a lifejacket with greater levels of flotation. Wearing a Level 275 lifejacket may hamper entry into liferafts.
b) fitted with either a crotch strap(s) / thigh straps or a full safety harness in accordance with ISO 12401,
      US SAILING prescribes that OSR 5.01.1 (b) shall not apply but recommends that lifejackets have a crotch strap or thigh straps until 1 January 2014 when crotch strap(s)/thigh straps will be required.
      Crotch straps or thigh straps together with related fittings and fixtures should be strong enough to lift the wearer from the water.
c) fitted with a lifejacket light in accordance with SOLAS LSA code 2.2.3 (white, >0.75 candelas, >8 hours),
d) if inflatable have a compressed gas inflation system,
e) if inflatable, regularly checked for gas retention,
f) compatible with the wearer's safety harness,
g) clearly marked with the yacht's or wearer's name,
      It is strongly recommended that a lifejacket has:
j) a splashguard / sprayhood See ISO 12402 – 8,
k) a PLB unit (as with other types of EPIRB, should be properly registered with the appropriate authority)
l) if of a gas inflatable type, a spare cylinder and if appropriate a spare activation head
5.01.4 The person in charge shall personally check each lifejacket at least once annually.
      US SAILING prescribes that for Categories 0, 1, 2, 3 either a Type 1 U.S. Coast Guard approved floatation device or an inflatable personal floatation device meeting the definition in the above paragraph and manufactured to either British National or European Community standards. Each inflatable device should be inflated and inspected annually. Service dates shall be marked on the floatation devices. This inflatable device may be integrated with a safety harness (see OSR 5.02).
      US SAILING prescribes that all personnel on deck shall wear personal floatation while starting and finishing without exception, and at all other times except when the Captain of the boat directs that it may be set aside.
      US SAILING note: As is true of all of these regulations, the prescriptions above do not necessarily replace the requirements of other governing authorities.
5.02 Safety Harness and Safety Lines (Tethers)
5.02.1 Each crew member shall have a harness and safety line that complies with ISO 12401 or equivalent with a safety line not more than 2m in length.
      Harnesses and safety lines manufactured prior to Jan 2010 shall comply with either ISO 12401 or EN 1095.
      Harnesses and safety lines manufactured prior to Jan 2001 are not permitted.
      US SAILING prescribes that harnesses and safety lines manufactured prior to Jan 2001 are not recommended in the U.S.
a) Warning it is possible for a plain snaphook to disengage from a U bolt if the hook is rotated under load at right-angles to the axis of the U-bolt. For this reason the use of snaphooks with positive locking devices is strongly recommended.
5.02.2 At least 30% of the crew shall each, in addition to the above be provided with either:-
a) a safety line not more than 1m long, or
b) a mid-point snaphook on a 2m safety line
5.02.3 A safety line purchased in January 2001 or later shall have a coloured flag embedded in the stitching, to indicate an overload. A line which has been overloaded shall be replaced as a matter of urgency.
5.02.4 A crew member's lifejacket and harness shall be compatible
5.02.5 It is strongly recommended that:-
a) static safety lines should be securely fastened at work stations;
b) A harness should be fitted with a crotch strap or thigh straps. Crotch straps or thigh straps together with related fittings and fixtures should be strong enough to lift the wearer from the water.
      Note: Before the end of 03/10 ISAF will publish recommended minimum breaking strains which for equipment purchased on or after 01/11 will be mandatory. Effective January 2011, a harness shall be fitted with crotch or thigh straps.
c) to draw attention to wear and damage, stitching on harness and safety lines should be of a colour contrasting strongly with the surrounding material;
d) snaphooks should be of a type which will not self-release from a U-bolt (see OSR 5.02.1(a)) and which can be easily released under load (crew members are reminded that a personal knife may free them from a safety line in emergency);
e) a crew member before a race should adjust a harness to fit then retain that harness for the duration of the race.
      US SAILING prescribes that the safety harness may be integrated with an inflatable personal floatation device (see OSR 5.01) and recommends that such devices be employed whenever conditions warrant, and always in rough weather, on cold water, or at night, or under conditions of reduced visibility or when sailing short-handed.
      US SAILING prescribes that safety harnesses and PFD's shall be worn on Category 0 and 1 races from sundown to sun up while on deck.
5.02.6 Warning - a safety harness is not designed to tow a person in the water and it is important that a harness is used to minimise or eliminate the risk of a person's torso becoming immersed in water outside the boat. The diligent use of a properly adjusted safety harness is regarded as by far the most effective way of preventing man overboard incidents.
5.04 Foul Weather Suits
b) it is recommended that a foul weather suit should be fitted with marine-grade retro-reflective material, and should have high-visibility colours on its upper parts and sleeve cuffs.See OSR 4.18
      A buoyant watertight flashlight, one shall be supplied to each crew member.
5.07 Survival Equipment
d) Attention is drawn to the value of keeping on the person a combined 406MHz/121.5MHz PLB when on deck: this may aid location in a man overboard incident independent of the equipment carried by the parent vessel
e) All PLB units, as with other types of EPIRB, should be properly registered with the appropriate authority
5.07.2 It is strongly recommended that an immersion suit should be supplied to each crew member in a multihull in conditions where there is a potential for hypothermia
      US SAILING prescibes that an immersion suit as specified above for each crew member is strongly recommended above latitude 30.
5.09 Annual Man-Overboard Practice
      US SAILING prescribes that the "Quick-Stop" man-overboard procedure shall be practiced aboard the yacht at least once annually. A certificate of such practice shall be signed by participating crew members and kept aboard the yacht.
5.10 CPR Training
      US SAILING recommends that at least two members of the crew be currently certified in cardiopulmonary resuscitation.
5.11 Preventer or Boom Restraining Device
      US SAILING recommends that a preventer or boom restraining device should be rigged in such a manner that attachment can be easily and quickly made, with the boom fully extended (running) without leaving the deck or leaning overboard. A process and plan for its use should be part of the crew's training and practice. Recommended for all boats in all categories.
6.01 At least 30% but not fewer than two members of a crew, including the skipper shall have undertaken training within the five years before the start of the race in both 6.02 topics for theoretical sessions, and 6.03 topics which include practical, hands-on sessions.
6.01.3 It is strongly recommended that all crew members should undertake training as in OSR 6.01 at least once every five years
6.01.4 Except as otherwise provided in the Notice of Race, an in-date certificate gained at an ISAF Approved Offshore Personal Survival Training course shall be accepted by a race organizing authority as evidence of compliance with Special Regulation 6.01. See Appendix G - Model Training Course, for further details.
6.02 Training Topics for Theoretical Sessions
6.02.1 care and maintenance of safety equipment
6.02.2 storm sails
6.02.3 damage control and repair
6.02.4 heavy weather - crew routines, boat handling, drogues
6.02.5 man overboard prevention and recovery
6.02.6 giving assistance to other craft
6.02.7 hypothermia
6.02.8 SAR organisation and methods
6.02.9 weather forecasting
      US SAILING prescribes that training under this regulation (OSR 6.02) shall take place in a program that is approved by US SAILING and that shall require a minimum of 8 hours. Competetitors who are members of other National Governing Bodies may demonstrate that they have completed such training in accordance with the requirements of those organizations.
6.03 Training Topics for Practical, Hands-On Sessions
6.03.1 liferafts and lifejackets
6.03.2 fire precautions and use of fire extinguishers
6.03.3 communications equipment (VHF, GMDSS, satcomms, etc.)
6.03.4 pyrotechnics and EPIRBs
6.04 Routine Training On-Board
6.04.1 It is recommended that crews should practice safety routines at reasonable intervals including the drill for man-overboard recovery
      US SAILING prescribes that each skipper in a Category 0 ,1 or 2 race shall ensure that a minimum of 30 percent of the crew have been trained in the use of the boat's equipment, including: liferafts and lifejackets; communications; pyrotechnics; EPIRBs; and fire prevention and fire fighting. A record of this training shall be kept aboard the boat in a manner similar to that required for certifying man-overboard training.
6.05.2 At least two members of the crew
      shall hold a current Senior First Aid Certificate or equivalent and should be familiar with the management of medical emergencies that may occur at sea including Hypothermia, and radio communications operations for obtaining medical advice by radio.
      Each of these crew members shall also have undertaken the training required by OSR 6.01.
      Appendix A - Minimum Specification for Yachtsmens Liferafts
      Appendix B - A guide to ISO and other Standards
      Appendix C - Standard Inspection Card
      Appendix D - Quickstop & Lifesling
      Appendix E - Hypothermia
      Appendix F - Drogues and sea anchors
      Appendix G - Model Training Course
      Appendix H - ISAF Code for the organisation of Oceanic Races
      Appendix M - Hull Construction Standards (Scantlings)
APPENDIX M - Hull Construction Standards (Scantlings) (Monohulls pre-2010 and Multihulls)
      m1 A monohull with Age or Series Date before the 1 January 2010 shall comply with OSR 3.03.1, 3.03.2 and 3.03.3 or with this appendix. A multihull shall comply with this appendix.
      Table 2
LOA earliest of age or series date race category
all January 1986 and after MoMu0,1
12m (39.4 feet) and over January 1987 and after MoMu2
under 12m (39.4 feet) January 1988 and after MoMu2
      m2 A yacht defined in the table above shall have been designed built, maintained, modified and repaired in accordance with the requirements of either:
a) the EC Recreational Craft Directive for Category A (having obtained the CE mark), or
b) the ABS Guide for Building and Classing Offshore Yachts in which case the yacht shall have on board either a certificate of plan approval issued by ABS, or written statements signed by the designer and builder which confirm that they have respectively designed and built the yacht in accordance with the ABS Guide,
c) ISO 12215 Category A, with written statements signed by the designer and builder which confirm that they have respectively designed and built the yacht in accordance with the ISO standard,
d) except that a race organizer or class rules may accept when that described in (a), (b), or (c) above is not available, the signed statement by a naval architect or other person familiar with the standards listed above that the yacht fulfills the requirements of (a), (b), or (c).
      m3 Any significant repairs or modifications to the hull, deck, coachroof, keel or appendages, on a yacht defined in table 2 shall be certified by one of the methods above and an appropriate written statement or statements shall be on board.
Wed 27 Jan 10 7:34:10 AM